Southern North Sea Marine Conservation Zones

Marine Conservation Zones

Southern North Sea

Edible Crab ©Linda Pitkin/2020VISION

This region stretches from Yorkshire's Flamborough Head down to mid Kent. There are 6 existing Marine Conservation Zones here, with a further 8 recommended for protection.

Recommended Marine Conservation Zones

These eight special areas of the seabed in the southern North Sea have been recommended for protection for their wildlife and habitats. These recommendations were developed with input from all kinds of sea users, from scientists to fishermen and are based on first-hand knowledge backed up with robust scientific data from undersea surveys. Protecting these parts of the seabed will help to create an ecological network of protected areas around the UK, giving wildlife the chance to recover and thrive. You can learn more about each of these recommended Marine Conservation Zones below.

Silver Pit

Silver Pit encompasses two original regional site recommendations; Silver Pit and Holderness Offshore, incorporating both deeper shelf habitats and the entire extent of a 50km glacial tunnel valley, found in the section known as Inner Silver Pit.

The seafloor here is a mosaic of mixed and coarse sediment habitats and is significant for crustaceans, including edible crabs and common lobsters. MCZ designation would greatly benefit the local crab and lobster pot fishery. 

Designation would also give protection to the Inner Pit glacial tunnel. This deep canyon has sloping walls covered in a living turf of brittlestars. Lemon and Dover sole, sprat, whiting, cod, plaice and herring all spawn here attracting feeding harbour porpoises and minke whales. In sandy-muddy areas like the Silver Pit, mussels provide a hard substrate that supports many other creatures.

Silver Pit rMCZ

Contains UKHO Law of the Sea data. Crown copyright and database right and contains Ordnance Survey Data Crown copyright and database 2012

Markham's Triangle

Located 137km offshore from the Yorkshire coast, the seafloor ranges from 30-50 metres in depth making it a relatively shallow area. The seafloor consists of both coarse sediment and sand, interspersed with small patches of rock and gravels. This supports many creatures that burrow within or camouflage against the sediment, such as polychaete worms and bivalve molluscs.

The gravel and sandy plains of Markham’s Triangle provide a home to thousands of sandeels, which burrow in the sediment to escape predators, such as harbour porpoise. The sandeels here form a key food source for grey and harbour seals as well as harbour porpoise, which are regularly spotted passing through the area.

Markham’s Triangle lies adjacent to the Dutch Cleaverbank Special Area of Conservation. Through designation of this site a corridor will be created between Marine Protected Areas, benefiting marine life in UK waters and beyond!

 

Markham's Triangle

Contains UKHO Law of the Sea data. Crown copyright and database right and contains Ordnance Survey Data Crown copyright and database 2012

Lincs Belt

Located along the length of the Lincolnshire coast, this site is characterised by coarse and mixed sediment, sand, peat and clay. Patches of ross worm reef are also found here. At its deepest the site reaches 10 metres, making it relatively shallow.

Life found on both the seabed and in the water column is extremely rich and characterised by brown shrimps, bristleworms and dense mats of hydroids and bryozoans such as hornwrack - often mistake for seaweed. Important spawning and nursery grounds are found here for fish such as sprat, lesser pipefish, lemon sole, plaice and herring. Home to a key UK grey seal breeding ground, which annually sees over 1500 pups born, and a nationally important colony of little terns, Lincs Belt is a real wildlife gem.

Hornwrack, a bryozoan often mistakenly identified as a seaweed, can be found carpeting large areas of the seabed in the Lincs Belt and is often found washed up on Lincolnshire's beaches. When fresh, hornwrack has a distinctive lemon smell!

Lincs Belt MCZ map

Contains UKHO Law of the Sea data. Crown copyright and database right and contains Ordnance Survey Data Crown copyright and database 2012

Wash Approach

Located 25km off the Lincolnshire coast, at the entrance of the Wash, this diverse seabed consists of sandbanks (including the Race Bank, North Ridge and Dungeon Shoal Banks), interspersed with cobbles, ribbons of coarse sand, gravel and ross worm reefs.

Carpets of bryozoans, sea squirts, hydroids, sponges and anemones cloak the sand and gravel, whilst squat lobsters and crabs scuttle to and fro. Harbour porpoises, grey and harbour seals feed here all year round alongside abundant numbers of seabirds.

The diverse waters also support many species of fish, including sandeels, Dover and lemon sole, whiting, thornback rays, and sea scorpions. The highly decorative dragonet camouflages itself against the mixed sediments of the seafloor, whilst weaver fish burrow within it. If designated, this site would play an important connectivity role within the network.

Wash Approach MCZ map

Contains UKHO Law of the Sea data. Crown copyright and database right and contains Ordnance Survey Data Crown copyright and database 2012

Alde Ore Estuary

Located in close proximity to Aldeburgh on the Suffolk Coast, the Alde Ore Estuary reaches no more than 5 metres in depth. The seabed comprises estuarine rocky habitats, sheltered muddy gravel as well as mixed sediments and biogenic reef habitats.

Smelt use the estuary for spawning, whilst many juvenile sea fish use the area as a nursery ground. These include sprat, herring and flatfish such as sole and dab. Often camouflaged amongst sand and gravel, it takes a keen eye to spot a sole resting on the seabed! Blue mussels, tentacled lagoon worms and oysters have also been recorded here.

The Alde Ore Special Protection Area supports 20,000 seabirds feeding, roosting and nesting, including populations of redshanks and lesser black-backed gulls.

The Orfordness geological feature, part of which lies within this recommended MCZ, comprises of nationally important shingle ridges extending 15km along the Suffolk coastline.

Alde Ore Estuary MCZ map

Contains UKHO Law of the Sea data. Crown copyright and database right and contains Ordnance Survey Data Crown copyright and database 2012

Orford Inshore

Located 14km offshore from the Alde Ore Estuary, this area consists almost entirely of a seafloor of mixed sediment, reaching between 20-30 metres in depth throughout.

The seafloor here is extremely important as a nursery and spawning ground for many fish species, including dover and lemon sole, sprat and sandeels. Skates, rays, smallspotted catsharks and several crustacean species are found here.

The area may also be of importance to foraging seabirds, such as the kittiwake, fulmar, gannet and Sandwich tern. Harbour porpoises are often spotted passing through this area on the lookout for a meal.

Designation of this site is important to ensure connectivity between existing sites in the network is maintained.

Orford Inshore MCZ map

Contains UKHO Law of the Sea data. Crown copyright and database right and contains Ordnance Survey Data Crown copyright and database 2012

Kentish Knock East

The Kentish Knock is one of several impressive sandbanks lying relatively far offshore between Kent and Essex, out from the mouth of the River Thames.

The predominantly sand and gravel seabed contains a diversity of animals living within the sediment, while hermit crabs scuttle across the surface among small sand goby fish and foraging rays and catsharks.

There are deeply gouged channels in the coarse sediment, ancient remnants of when the glacial floodwaters broke through from the North Sea.

The thermal water fronts mean this is a productive area, with numerous species of fish living in mid water, witnessed by the many birds that come to forage for food around the sandbanks in both summer and winter.

Kentish Knock East MCZ map

Contains UKHO Law of the Sea data. Crown copyright and database right and contains Ordnance Survey Data Crown copyright and database 2012

Thames Estuary

Smelt are among the many fish that now breed in the River Thames. Despite the heavy activity on its banks and bed, the Thames estuary, from Richmond to the wider mouth at Southend and Grain, provides critical spawning and nursery grounds for fish.

Dover sole, salmon, flounder, cod, herring, sprat, twait shad and both river and sea lampreys are all important inhabitants of the estuary.

The estuary is also home to the beguiling short-snouted seahorse, which has been recorded on several occasions. Other rarities include the delicate tentacled lagoon worm which can be found at Greenhithe.

We are recommending this site for the protection of smelt and the rare tentacled lagoon worm.

Thames Estuary MCZ map

Contains UKHO Law of the Sea data. Crown copyright and database right and contains Ordnance Survey Data Crown copyright and database 2012

Map of Marine Conservation Zones

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Existing MCZs
(Tranche 1)
 
Existing MCZs
(Tranche 2)
 
Welsh
offshore MCZs
 
Recommended
MCZs

Existing Marine Conservation Zones

There have been six Marine Conservation Zones designated in the Southern North Sea so far, all covering coastal areas between Yorkshire and Kent.

Medway Estuary

This site has been designated for a range of estuarine habitats as well as for the tentacled lagoon worm, which lives in the narrow channels upstream of this dynamic estuary.

The sheltered muddy gravels in the area support some of the most diverse communities of animals in the region, providing rich nursery grounds for many fish, including skates, sea trout and an unusual sub-species of herring.

The mosaic of habitat types also includes saltmarsh islands and banks and mudflats, which contain many molluscs, worms and crustaceans that live within the sediment.

The area is also frequented by seals which haul out on the estuary banks and seabirds which forage for food in the rich muddy sediment.

Medway Estuary MCZ map

Contains UKHO Law of the Sea data. Crown copyright and database right and contains Ordnance Survey Data Crown copyright and database 2012

Thanet Coast

This site has been designated for a wide range of habitats found in the area including sand, chalk, rock, peat and clay and gravel habitats, as well as to protect the ross worm reefs and two species of extraordinary and rare stalked jellyfish found here.

Thanet has the longest continuous stretch of coastal chalk in the UK. Its magnificent cliffs stand above the rich chalk reefs which stretch out across the shore and far out into the sea. The chalk shore features many gullies and supports lush seaweed assemblages, rich mussel beds and reefs made from the sandy tubes of industrious ross worms.

In the many rockpools, prawns, hermit crabs and small fish are regular sights, while specialities such as stalked jellyfish, brightly coloured sea slugs and baby cuttlefish can also be found. On the chalk below the tide, colourful sponges, anemones and sea squirts abound, along with a variety of crab and fish species.

A breeding population of the stalked jellyfish St John’s Jellyfish (Lucernariopsis cruxmelitensis) was recorded beside Walpole Bay in September 2011 (photographed and filmed by the BBC). A video can be viewed here.

Thanet Coast MCZ map

Contains UKHO Law of the Sea data. Crown copyright and database right and contains Ordnance Survey Data Crown copyright and database 2012

The Blackwater, Crouch, Roach and Colne Estuaries

This site was designated in 2013 to protect the intertidal sediment habitats found here, as well as to provide protection for the native oyster beds.

Located as part of the wider Outer Thames Estuary, the River Blackwater is the largest tidal river in Essex. It consists of a mosaic of habitats including subtidal and intertidal sands, gravels, mud and mixed sediment.

It is this mosaic of habitats that provides a home for a wide range of species including the rare and vulnerable native oyster; this important species provides a key habitat that supports a range of associated species. Blue mussels and ross worms are also important reef building species. Their structures create what is known as a biogenic reef, which provides nooks and crannies for many other species to live within.

The Blackwater Estuary is also the only area in the South of England that is home to the tiny lagoon sea slug (Tenellia adspersa).

The Blackwater, Crouch, Roach and Colne Estuaries MCZ map

Contains UKHO Law of the Sea data. Crown copyright and database right and contains Ordnance Survey Data Crown copyright and database 2012

Holderness Inshore

Running from Skipsea to Spurn Point, the seafloor here boasts a wealth of diversity, including habitats of cobbles, mixed sediment, sand and chalk, alongside patches of peat and clay. This mosaic supports a dense coverage of hydroid and bryozoan turf, sponges and ross worm reef as well as many fish, including tope and smoothhound.

Over 8 different types of crabs have been seen at Holderness Inshore, as well as the purple bloody Henry starfish and common sunstars. Harbour porpoises and minke whales are often spotted from the shore passing through this area.

Holderness Inshore is also important for foraging seabirds as well as migrants. Within the southern region is ‘The Binks’, a geological feature forming the seaward extension of Spurn Point.

Holderness Inshore MCZ map

Contains UKHO Law of the Sea data. Crown copyright and database right and contains Ordnance Survey Data Crown copyright and database 2012

Cromer Shoal Chalk Beds

Located just 200 metres from the Norfolk coast is the start of an exciting stretch of chalk reef, ranging from 0 – 20 metres in depth. This unique reef comprises boulders, stacks and arches and is most likely to be Europe’s largest chalk reef. Three-metre-high arches of chalk tower above the seabed, providing a home for attached sponges and red seaweeds, whilst shoaling horse mackerel fly through the water like silvery darts. Alongside chalk, the seabed is composed of a mixture of rock, sediment, peat and clay.

Marine life is abundant here, including blue mussel beds, over 30 species of sea slug, harbour porpoises, and grey and harbour seals, alongside occasional sightings of sunfish and basking sharks.

The chalk habitat here hosts large communities of crustaceans, burrowing piddocks, sea squirts, anemones and sponges; the purple sponge found here is a species new to science and was only discovered in 2011 by Dr Claire Goodwin. Shoaling fish are also a common sight and provide food for many seabirds, including common, little and Sandwich terns.

Cromer Shoal Chalk Beds MCZ map

Contains UKHO Law of the Sea data. Crown copyright and database right and contains Ordnance Survey Data Crown copyright and database 2012

The Swale Estuary

Between the north Kent coast and the Isle of Sheppey is an area well known for the birds which come to feed on the abundance of life in and on the rich muddy seabed. Seals also use these waters to forage for food, and haul out on Horse Sands to rest at low tide.

The Swale forms an important spawning and nursery area for several species of fish, which can find shelter in the seagrass and mussel beds in addition to the muddy gravel. Here, greater pipefish, close cousins to the seahorses, come to feed in the shallow water.

Off Whitstable, the famous shingle spit known as ‘The Street’ is surrounded by areas of colourful red, green and brown seaweeds and beds of peacock worms with their beautiful whorls of tentacles. 

Swale Estuary MCZ map

Contains UKHO Law of the Sea data. Crown copyright and database right and contains Ordnance Survey Data Crown copyright and database 2012

Nudibranch (sea slug)

Nudibranch (Facelina auriculata) ©Alex Mustard/2020VISION

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