The Secretary of State, George Eustice, made the decision in response to the potential danger posed from beet yellows virus, despite a similar application being refused in 2018 by the UK Expert Committee on Pesticides because of unacceptable environmental risks.
In 2018, the UK Government supported restrictions on the neonicotinoid pesticides across the European Union due to the very clear harm that they were causing to bees and other wildlife. The then Environment Secretary, Michael Gove, promised that the Government would maintain these restrictions unless the scientific evidence changed. The evidence has not changed – indeed, the devastating impact this group of pesticides is having on our wildlife has increased, and hardly a month goes by without yet more evidence of the wider ecological crisis. Academic and author, Professor Dave Goulson, has warned that one teaspoon of neonic is enough to kill 1.25 billion honeybees, equivalent to four lorryloads.
The Government has stated that authorised applications will have strict conditions to ensure that wildlife is not harmed, but this assertion does not stand up to scrutiny. The authorisation allows “seed-dressing” of sugar beet crops with neonicotinoid pesticides, a method of application that results in only 5% of the pesticide going where it is targeted, in the crop. The rest ends up accumulating in the soil, from where it can be absorbed by the roots of wildflowers and hedgerow plants, or can leach into rivers and streams where it could harm over 3,800 invertebrate species, which spend at least part of their life cycle in freshwater.
The authorisation also proposes adding weed killer to sugar beet fields to 'protect' bees by killing wildflowers that grow alongside the sugar beet - because beneficial 'weeds' will have absorbed neonicotinoids (neonics) through the contaminated soil. Doing so would seriously harm already-threatened populations of wildflowers and the insects that depend on them.
Joan Edwards, Director of Public Affairs at The Wildlife Trusts says:
“The Government has bowed to pressure from the National Farmers Union even though, three years ago, the UK Government supported restrictions on the neonicotinoid pesticides across the European Union, because of the very clear harm that they were causing to bees and other pollinators. We will be writing to the Prime Minister requesting that he reverses the Secretary of State’s decision and focus support for farmers to adopt non-chemical alternatives so that agriculture supports nature and does not destroy it.
“Insect populations have suffered drastic declines in the UK – and these are set to have far-reaching consequences for both wildlife and people. Recent evidence suggests we have lost 50% or more of our insects since 1970, and 41% of the Earth's remaining five million insect species are now 'threatened with extinction'. Insects are food for numerous larger animals including birds, bats, reptiles, amphibians and fish, and they perform vital roles for people too – such as pollination of crops and wildflowers, pest control and nutrient recycling.
The Secretary of State’s decision to authorise the use of an environmentally devastating chemical to increase production of a crop with no nutritional value is madness.
"Instead, the Government should be focussing their efforts on regenerative farming approaches, supporting farmers to produce nutritional food which is good for people and has a positive effect on wildlife.”
The Wildlife Trusts are dismayed that the Government are asking us to choose between the plight of farmers and the plight of bees and wild pollinators. Farmers are in the eye of the storm, experiencing the impact of climate change and more extreme weather events including the mild winter last year, which fuelled the virus affecting sugar beet. Farmers need support to be resilient to climate change and to move to alternatives, not given a licence to pollute soil and kill bees.
The weight of evidence shows a significant environmental risk posed by neonicotinoids – particularly to our bees and other pollinators – and hundreds of thousands of people came together across Britain over the last decade to call for better protection of our bee populations, and for these highly toxic pesticides to be banned.
Sugar is a crop with zero nutritive value and it is an accepted fact that we currently consume far too much; it is a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic and associated surge in diabetes. In response to this epidemic and the associated cost to the NHS, our Government introduced a sugar tax on fizzy drinks to try to reduce our intake. This move sits at odds with their latest decision to allow the return of a pesticide, which will enable the growing of a crop that is at the root of the problem - one which we know will cause environmental harm.
In 2017, the then Environment Secretary, Michael Gove, said*:
“I have set out our vision for a Green Brexit in which environmental standards are not only maintained but enhanced.
“I’ve always been clear I will be led by the science on this matter. The weight of evidence now shows the risks neonicotinoids pose to our environment, particularly to the bees and other pollinators which play such a key part in our £100bn food industry, is greater than previously understood. I believe this justifies further restrictions on their use. We cannot afford to put our pollinator populations at risk.”
It is unfortunate that within seven days of leaving Europe, his successor Mr Eustice, has agreed to a derogation of the law preventing the use of neonics.
Joan Edwards adds:
“It’s absurd that as the UK Government commits to spending £3bn of international climate finance on restoring nature and biodiversity, it is also approving the use of nature-destroying neonicotinoid pesticides here in the UK. The Prime Minister is right to say that we will not achieve our goals on climate change, sustainable development or preventing pandemics if we fail to take care of the natural world that provides us with the food we eat, the water we drink and the air we breathe. But the UK Government cannot claim to be a ‘world-leader’ on protecting and restoring nature whilst supporting the use of these damaging pesticides.”
The Wildlife Trusts have further advice for people on taking action to help insects at home or in communities by becoming an insect champion at wildlifetrusts.org/action-for-insects.
*See Defra press release Environment Secretary backs further restrictions on neonicotinoid pesticides