A Local Wildlife Site in Leicestershire (credit Neil Talbot)
Local Wildlife Sites (LWSs) are identified and selected for their local nature conservation value. They protect threatened species and habitats acting as buffers, stepping stones and corridors between nationally-designated wildlife sites.
- What are Local Wildlife Sites?
- How are Local Wildlife Sites selected?
- Why are Local Wildlife Sites important?
- What is a Local Wildlife Site system?
- Local Wildlife Sites and The Wildlife Trusts
- Local Wildlife Sites are different to Local Green Spaces
- Local Wildlife Sites and the National Policy Planning Framework (NPPF)
There are over 40,000 Local Wildlife Sites across England
Local Wildlife Sites (LWSs) are wildlife-rich sites selected for their local nature conservation value. They vary in shape and size and can contain important, distinctive and threatened habitats and species. In many parts of the UK, they are the principal wildlife resource but their designation is non-statutory and their only protection comes via the planning system. They are not protected by law like SSSIs or National Nature reserves. Whilst SSSIs are a representative sample that meet national criteria, LWSs include all sites that meet local selection criteria. Many are owned by private individuals.
Local partnerships oversee the selection of LWSs using robust, scientifically-determined criteria and a local knowledge and understanding of the area’s natural environment. LWS partnerships are made up of a great variety of stakeholders including local authorities, public bodies, nature conservation NGOs and landowners large and small.
LWS play a critical conservation role by providing wildlife refuges, protecting threatened species and habitats, and acting as links and corridors between nationall designated sites such as nature reserves and SSSIs.
The Making Space for Nature report (September 2010) stated that: ‘Local Wildlife Sites are important to future ecological networks, because they not only provide wildlife refuges in their own right but can act as stepping stones and corridors to link and protect nationally and internationally designated sites’. Where SSSIs are scarce in some parts of the country, the great majority of wildlife is found in LWSs. Nottinghamshire is a good example as only 1.5% of the land area is SSSI whilst LWSs cover 10%.
Many LWS have an urban or suburban location making them vital spaces for wildlife in towns and cities. Over 19% of LWSs are in, or within, 500m of urban areas compared with just 3.6% of SSSIs.
A Local Wildlife Site system is the partnership-run approach for identifying, selecting, monitoring and protecting Local Wildlife Sites (LWS). Multiple bodies are involved in these systems, including local authorities, landowners, government agencies and local Wildlife Trusts. Systems are most commonly administered on a county or unitary authority scale.
For more than 35 years, The Wildlife Trusts have worked with local authorities, statutory agencies, landowners and other local partners to establish effective systems for identifying, managing and monitoring Local Wildlife Sites throughout England. Within these partnerships, The Wildlife Trusts often play a significant role in helping to secure the:
• sensitive management of these sites through the provision of landowner advice and support and
• protection of these sites by influencing the development and application of local and national planning policies
The film below shows how Local Wildlife Sites are integral to Kent Wildlife Trust's conservation work to create a Living Landscape across Kent.
Local Wildlife Site is the generic term promoted for these sites in England since 2006. Historically however, there have been more than 20 local variations to the terminology used to name these sites many of which are still in use including:
• Site of Importance for Nature Conservation (SINC)
• Wildlife Sites (sometimes prefixed with County, Key or Special)
• Site of Nature Conservation Interest (SNCI)
• Site of Local Nature Conservation Interest
• Biological Heritage Sites
• Sites of Biological Importance
• Biodiversity Alert Sites
Regardless of the term adopted locally, they are all wildlife-rich sites selected for their local nature conservation value using robust, scientifically developed criteria.
Local Wildlife Sites should be distinguished from the new Local Green Space designation which was introduced in the 2011 Localism Act. Local Green Spaces may be selected for wildlife value, but unlike Local Wildlife Sites selection could also be selected solely on their local community significance for beauty, historic importance, recreational value and tranquility. There are also limits to the location and scale of these spaces, which does not apply to Local Wildlife Sites.
Planning policy and practice should provide greater protection to habitats and features that form part of ecological networks, particularly Local Wildlife Sites’ - Making Space for Nature report to Defra, September 2010
The only form of protection afforded to Local Wildlife Sites has been through the planning system. On 27 March 2012 the Government launched its National Planning Policy Framework for England, a 50 page consolidation of policy, down from more than 1,000 pages.
This new framework retains protection for Local Wildlife Sites which are clearly recognised in the framework as locally designated sites. The policy specifically relating to locally designated sites is found in several paragraphs which provide the direction for local authorities to identify, map and protect these sites through local plans. The new policy also requires protection of Local Wildlife Sites to recognise the importance and the contribution that they make to wider ecological networks, as stated in the Government’s own Natural Environment White Paper.
The Wildlife Trusts will work to ensure local authorities are aware of these changes and considering Local Wildlife Sites in their local plans.
Status of English Local Wildlife Site Systems 2011 Report
The Status of English Local Wildlife Site Systems 2011 reports on the results of a survey of all known Local Wildlife Site (LWS) systems in England and is the sixth in a series of surveys that has been conducted by The Wildlife Trusts since 2000. The report highlights that:
• 51 of the 52 LWS systems covering England have an established partnership
• collectively more than 600 partners are working locally with landowners to identify, manage and protect LWSs
• the two highest perceived threats to the loss and damage of LWS are associated with inappropriate/lack of management and development pressures
• lack of funding is the most significant constraint on partners’ ability to liaise with and advise landowners about site management.
• 34 partnerships believe that in most cases local plan policies aimed at protecting LWS were implemented effectively. Yet, 173 LWSs were still lost to, or damaged by built development in 2010. Of these, at least 25 were lost completely.
• the abolition of both Local Area Agreements and the national improvement indicator to measure the proportion of Local Sites in positive conservation management (NI197) has caused some concern amongst LWS partnerships with more than a third believing that this will have a negative impact, resulting in a fall in the perceived importance of LWS and a resulting threat to future funding.